One of the strengths of photoemission microscopy is the possibility to combine PEEM with a wide variety of illumination sources. This tutorial focuses on the time structure of the illumination that introduces two new aspects into PEEM. First, a compression of the illumination in time can easily create pulses with peak powers of several hundred kilowatts and enables nonlinear emission pathways. Second, the stroboscopic illumination can be used in pump-probe experiments to create slow-motion movies of ultrafast processes with a time resolution of a few femtoseconds. The tutorial will discuss ultrashort laser setups that are commonly used for nonlinear and pump-probe microscopy and will discuss some of the experimental issues such as dispersion management and space charge. The tutorial will close with some views on the current state of using electron pulses for illumination.
LEEM, PEEM and Pulsed Illumination
Frank Meyer zu Heringdorf, University of Duisburg-Essen